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Carlos Alberto Montaner

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Carlos A. Montaner (1943)

Carlos Alberto Montaner was born on 3 April 1943. His father worked as a journalist and his mother was a teacher. As a boy, Carlos attended a private school; he noticed that many important people would come to meet up in his family’s house from time to time – this was because his father participated in the political life of the country. He married at the age of 16 and at first sympathized with the Revolution. However, he soon learned of Fidel Castro’s Communist orientation and joined the efforts of the Rescate Revolucionario (Revolutionary Rescue) group, which opposed this tendency. This led to him being arrested and sentenced to 20 years in prison. However, since he was only 17 years old, he was placed in a prison for juvenile political prisoners. With the help of other colleagues, he managed to escape and found asylum at the Embassy of Honduras, where he remained from March to September 1961 along with 150 other people. When diplomatic relations between Honduras and Cuba broke following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the asylees were taken under the protection of Venezuela. About six months later, Carlos Montaner travelled to the United States, where he was reunited with his family. He began studying Hispanic American literature at the University of Miami. Upon graduating, he started teaching literature at the University of Puerto Rico. He successfully applied for a PhD scholarship in Madrid. In Spain he started a regular column and increasingly focused on writing. He published several books, and after the fall of the Franco regime in 1975, he joined the liberal movement and founded the Cuban Liberal Party. When he understood that change in Cuba was not yet possible, he returned to an intellectual life: he was a correspondent for several prominent newspapers around the world; he wrote columns, commented on Latin American affairs and published books. He currently resides in the United States and works at CNN in Spanish. He has a son and a daughter.

Carlos A. Montaner  (1943)

“Když jsem byl zavřený ve věznici La Cabaña… totiž, byl jsem tam zavřený ze začátku, jenom malou chvíli, nicméně úplně to stačilo, abych mohl spatřit některé ohyzdnosti, jako například… jednoho vězně popravili, a jeho žena… oni jí to neřekli… a ona ho přišla navštívit týden poté. A bachař na ní zařval: „Tohodle červa jsme zabili před pár dny. Jestli chceš chlapa, budeš mi muset sehnat jinýho.“ Ta ubohá žena tam na místě omdlela. Nebyla připravená slyšet něco takového.”

“Přeřezal jsem mříž, ale neměl jsem dost síly, byl jsem hrozně hubený, takže jsem to pak nedokázal ohnout. Požádal jsem tedy jednoho venkovana, který měl velkou sílu, aby to ohnul. On přišel, ohnul ty mříže a já jsem vylezl společně s Rafaelem Jeradou, dalším zadrženým, který byl jeden z těch, kteří povstali proti nové vládě v Escambray. Já jsem vůbec nepochyboval o tom, že byl na naší straně. Proč jsem nepochyboval? On totiž nastoupil do věznice se střelnou ránou na ruce. Ta ruka byla plná červů a celá shnilá, a my jsme mu tu ruku zachránili Salfumánem, to je mycí prostředek na podlahu. A ta oběť, kterou on tímto podstupoval, takhle daleko by nikdy žádný nastrčený špion nezašel, takže jsem měl stoprocentní jistotu, že šlo o důvěryhodnou osobu. Rafael a já jsme prolezli oknem a hned na to si nás všimla stráž. Nicméně bachař musel vyjít ven na dvorek, na který jsme vyskočili, a to nám zajistilo pár sekund. Těch pár chvil bylo dostatečně dlouho na to, abychom se rozběhli obdivuhodnou rychlostí, která však nebyla výsledkem naší odvahy, ale našeho strachu. Taková rychlost je totiž o hodně vyšší. Strach, který jsme měli, byl tak velký, že Jerada, který byl velmi vtipný, říkal, že jsme měli větší strach, než sto jeptišek. ’”

“Zažil jsem, jak zmizel autoritarismus ze Španělska, chybělo mi však ještě vidět, jak se zhroutí komunismus ve východní Evropě a v Sovětském svazu. Klíčovou roli sehrál Yakovlev a Gorbačov. Vzpomínám si, že při jednom rozhovoru s Yakovlevem, poté, co mi vysvětlil tu spoustu administračních kroků, které podnikli a veškeré reformy, které spustili… a jak to všechno naprosto ztroskotalo… tak já jsem se ho potom na konci toho rozhovoru, který trval několik hodin, zeptal: “No dobře, pane Yakovleve, ale co se tedy stalo? Proč všechny ty reformy nemohly fungovat?” A on mi odpověděl: “ No, víte, protože jsme nakonec zjistili, až na úplně samém konci jsme si uvědomili, že komunismus je prostě opravdu neslučuje s podstatou lidského bytí.” A to je pravda. Komunismus je konstrukce několika málo jedinců, která nikdy nemůže existovat. Právě proto musejí produkovat nového člověka, kterého nikdy nevyprodukují, protože jediné, co dělají, je vraždění původní lidi. Nicméně nikdy nezkonstruují žádného nového člověka, jelikož nic takového neexistuje a je to celé velmi vzdálené lidské podstatě, a proto to nemůže mít úspěch. Jedno je však velmi smutné, a to že aby zjistili něco tak poměrně velmi zjevného, muselo nejdřív zemřít 100 milionů lidí.”

“Bylo zrovna dne 28. prosince, když nás zatknuli. Potom 3. nebo 4. ledna jsme měli soud a vyfasovali jsme 20 let natvrdo. Ten soud byl totální vtip. Rozsudky byli předem připravené Ministerstvem vnitra, takže ti soudci se tam mohli klidně prospat. Jeden z těch, co tam seděli, taky vypadal, že je celou dobu v polospánku. A bylo to úplně jedno, protože výsledek byl předem daný. Nicméně jelikož mě bylo tehdy teprve 17 let, a zákon… tedy, stále platili stejné zákony jako předtím, a podle zákona nebylo možné odsoudit k smrti a zastřeli někoho, kdo ještě nedovršil 18 let. To samé platilo i pro nepodmíněné tresty, neboli mladiství museli nastoupit svůj trest v zařízení pro mladší 18 let. Takže tam jsem šel já. Ti další tři, co je odsoudili se mnou, ti už byli dospělí a šli do vězení. Jednoho z nich, Alfreda Carrila, zavraždili na v lágru Isla de Pinos. Ostatní dva si odseděli dvacetileté tresty. Bylo to něco strašného. Mě tedy umístili do zařízení, které se tehdy jmenovalo Piti Fajardo, nicméně bylo to vězení v Torrens, vězení pro mladistvé politické vězně. Nejmladšímu vězňovi tam bylo 11 let. Proč bylo zavřené jedenáctileté dítě? Totiž, zastřelili mu otce a ten chlapec se rozhodnul zapálit plantáže s cukrovou třtinou. Označili ho za pyromana. Nebyl to ale žádný pyroman, bylo to naštvané dítě, kterému zastřelili otce. ”

Sleeping calmly is always irresponsible

Carlos Alberto Montaner was born on 3 April 1943. His father worked as a journalist and his mother was a teacher. As a boy, Carlos attended a private school; he noticed that many important people would come to meet up in his family‘s house from time to time – this was because his father participated in the political life of the country. He married at the age of 16 and at first sympathized with the Revolution. However, he soon learned of Fidel Castro‘s Communist orientation and joined the efforts of the Rescate Revolucionario (Revolutionary Rescue) group, which opposed this tendency. This led to him being arrested and sentenced to 20 years in prison. However, since he was only 17 years old, he was placed in a prison for juvenile political prisoners. With the help of other colleagues, he managed to escape and found asylum at the Embassy of Honduras, where he remained from March to September 1961 along with 150 other people. When diplomatic relations between Honduras and Cuba broke following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the asylees were taken under the protection of Venezuela. About six months later, Carlos Montaner travelled to the United States, where he was reunited with his family. He began studying Hispanic American literature at the University of Miami. Upon graduating, he started teaching literature at the University of Puerto Rico. He successfully applied for a PhD scholarship in Madrid. In Spain he started a regular column and increasingly focused on writing. He published several books, and after the fall of the Franco regime in 1975, he joined the liberal movement and founded the Cuban Liberal Party. When he understood that change in Cuba was not yet possible, he returned to an intellectual life: he was a correspondent for several prominent newspapers around the world; he wrote columns, commented on Latin American affairs and published books. He currently resides in the United States and works at CNN in Spanish. He has a son and a daughter.

Carlos A. Montaner

Carlos A. Montaner

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Amazon.com: Carlos Alberto Montaner: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle

Amazon.com: Carlos Alberto Montaner: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle

¿Por qué Latinoamérica es el segmento más pobre y subdesarrollado de Occidente?Es frecuente que las referencias del continente europeo lo perfilen como un ideal que debemos alcanzar, llamándolo incluso la cumbre de la civilización. Pero ¿qué podemos decir de sus procesos colonizadores, particularmente los realizados en el Nuevo Mundo?En Las raíces torcidas de América Latina, Carlos Alberto Montaner arranca del origen y nos brinda un debate profundo acerca de la legitimidad de la colonización y la construcción de esta región. Habla del drama y la insatisfacción entre conquistadores y conquistados, analiza el interesante proceso de mestizaje y la vasta cultura que se gestó a partir de este hecho. Nos lleva también a comprender las razones del subdesarrollo y plantea una angustiosa pregunta: “Si nuestras raíces históricas se encuentran torcidas,¿estamos permanentemente condenados al subdesarrollo, a la tiranía y al atraso cultural, o es posible que alguna vez América Latina pase a formar parte del pelotón de avanzada de Occidente?”Por fortuna, Montaner también nos ofrece una respuesta optimista después de analizar las aristas de nuestra historia: “Si alguna lección nos ha dejado el Siglo xx —especialmente tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial— es que el desarrollo económico y el fin del atraso y la pobreza son perfectamente alcanzables.”“Un libro indispensable para entender por qué América Latina ha sido, hasta ahora, una promesa incumplida”.Mario Vargas Llosa

#Llegó la hora de recapitular. Hay que ir haciendo las maletas. Desaparecer es una actividad ingrata que sólo se justifica porque es la única prueba irrefutable de que hemos vivido#.

En estas página, el escritor y periodista cubano Carlos Alberto Montaner sobre cuanto ha visto y oído, lo que ha creido y lo que recuerda, pero advierte que habrá algunos pasajes involuntariamente inventados: #A veces, incluso, los sueños se mezclan con la realidad y es difícil saber dónde terminan unos y comienza la otra. Las memorias no son estudios históricos sino el reflejo de las percepciones y éstas se desdibujan o se transforman con el tiempo de manera inexorable#.

Con estas memorias, que decidió comenzar a redactar en 2015, Montaner hablará sobre la Revolución Cubana, ocurrida durante su adolescencia y que moldeó su vida. Continuará con sus años de exilio, que comenzó a los 18 años y lo llevaron de Miami a Puerto Rico, de allí a España y nuevamente a Miami, siempre con un pie en un avión. #Utilizaré estos recuerdos para incursionar en el juicio histórico y político#.

Pese a haber vivido fuera de Cuba las cuatro quintas partes de su vida, Montaner advierte que #no recuerdo un solo día en el que esa isla no hubiera estado presente en mí de alguna forma. Siempre ha existido una llamada, una noticia, un visitante, un artículo, un libro, una entrevista, una firma colectiva, una conversación, algo que me obligaba a recordar mi condición de exiliado y me retrotraía al centro del conflicto#.

Al final el autor hace una relevación personal que dará mucho de qué hablar.

Carlos A. Montaner (1943)

Carlos Alberto Montaner was born on 3 April 1943. His father worked as a journalist and his mother was a teacher. As a boy, Carlos attended a private school; he noticed that many important people would come to meet up in his family’s house from time to time – this was because his father participated in the political life of the country. He married at the age of 16 and at first sympathized with the Revolution. However, he soon learned of Fidel Castro’s Communist orientation and joined the efforts of the Rescate Revolucionario (Revolutionary Rescue) group, which opposed this tendency. This led to him being arrested and sentenced to 20 years in prison. However, since he was only 17 years old, he was placed in a prison for juvenile political prisoners. With the help of other colleagues, he managed to escape and found asylum at the Embassy of Honduras, where he remained from March to September 1961 along with 150 other people. When diplomatic relations between Honduras and Cuba broke following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the asylees were taken under the protection of Venezuela. About six months later, Carlos Montaner travelled to the United States, where he was reunited with his family. He began studying Hispanic American literature at the University of Miami. Upon graduating, he started teaching literature at the University of Puerto Rico. He successfully applied for a PhD scholarship in Madrid. In Spain he started a regular column and increasingly focused on writing. He published several books, and after the fall of the Franco regime in 1975, he joined the liberal movement and founded the Cuban Liberal Party. When he understood that change in Cuba was not yet possible, he returned to an intellectual life: he was a correspondent for several prominent newspapers around the world; he wrote columns, commented on Latin American affairs and published books. He currently resides in the United States and works at CNN in Spanish. He has a son and a daughter.

Carlos A. Montaner  (1943)

“Když jsem byl zavřený ve věznici La Cabaña… totiž, byl jsem tam zavřený ze začátku, jenom malou chvíli, nicméně úplně to stačilo, abych mohl spatřit některé ohyzdnosti, jako například… jednoho vězně popravili, a jeho žena… oni jí to neřekli… a ona ho přišla navštívit týden poté. A bachař na ní zařval: „Tohodle červa jsme zabili před pár dny. Jestli chceš chlapa, budeš mi muset sehnat jinýho.“ Ta ubohá žena tam na místě omdlela. Nebyla připravená slyšet něco takového.”

“I cut the bar, but I had no strength, I was very skinny, I did not have the strength to bend it, so I asked one farmer, who was very strong, to bend it. And the peasant went and bent the bar, and I climbed down along with Rafael Jerada, another prisoner who had been raised in Escambray as a peasant, of whom I had no doubt that he was on our side. Why did I not doubt him? Because he had arrived with a bullet in one hand and… full of worms, the wound almost rotten, and we healed his hand with spirits of salts [hydrochloric acid], which is a disinfectant used to clean floors. And so… a spy would never be willing to make a sacrifice so extreme, so he offered me all the guarantees that told me he was an honorable person. Rafael and I climbed out. The guard noticed immediately noticed, but he had to go out and around to the yard we had jumped down in to, and that took a few seconds, which was enough time for us to leg it really fast. That was not the speed of courage but the speed of fear, which is much more powerful than the speed of courage. The fear we had was, as Jerada said, he was very funny, he said: ‘We were more afraid than a hundred nuns.’”

“I had already seen how authoritarianism disappeared in Spain, I had yet to see how Communism disappeared in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union, and the key was in Yakovlev, and it was also in Gorbachev. In that conversation with Yakovlev, I remember that after explaining to me the number of steps they had taken and the reforms they had undertaken, how everything had failed… and I asked at the end of the conversation that lasted several hours: ‘But, Mr Yakovlev, what happened, why did the reforms not work?’ And he said: ‘Well, because we found out, and we understood at the end, that Communism really does not adapt to human nature.’ And that’s true. Communism is an artificial construct for people who do not exist. That is why they have to manufacture new people, but they’ll never manufacture them because what they actually do is they kill the original people, but they never build new ones because it doesn’t work that way, and it is far from human nature, and therefore it fails. What is sad is that it has already cost a hundred million dead to find out something that was quite obvious.”

“This was in December, on the 28th, when we were arrested. On the 3rd or 4th of January, they judged us and condemned us to 20 years in prison, in a trial which was a total farce. The sentences had already been decided by the Ministry of the Interior, the court could have gone to sleep, as one of the judges who judged us did – he was half asleep, and it did not matter as the sentences had already been made. But since I was 17 years old, and the law… the previous law still existed… the law said that children under 18 could not be shot dead, and that those under 18 years of age had to serve their sentences in a juvenile prison until they were 18. And it was there… where the other three who were over 18 years old were sentenced to prison… one was murdered, Alfredo Carril was murdered in the Isle of Pines, the other two served 20 years in prison. In short, it was terrible. And they put me in the jail that was called Piti Fajardo at that time, but it had been the prison of Torrens, a jail for underaged political prisoners, where the youngest of the political prisoners was 11 years old. Why was an 11-year-old boy imprisoned? Well, because that boy, when they shot his father, he decided to set fire to some sugar cane plantations. They said he was a pyromaniac. He was not a pyromaniac, he was a child who was angry because his dad had been killed.”

Sleeping calmly is always irresponsible

Carlos Alberto Montaner was born on 3 April 1943. His father worked as a journalist and his mother was a teacher. As a boy, Carlos attended a private school; he noticed that many important people would come to meet up in his family’s house from time to time – this was because his father participated in the political life of the country. He married at the age of 16 and at first sympathized with the Revolution. However, he soon learned of Fidel Castro’s Communist orientation and joined the efforts of the Rescate Revolucionario (Revolutionary Rescue) group, which opposed this tendency. This led to him being arrested and sentenced to 20 years in prison. However, since he was only 17 years old, he was placed in a prison for juvenile political prisoners. With the help of other colleagues, he managed to escape and found asylum at the Embassy of Honduras, where he remained from March to September 1961 along with 150 other people. When diplomatic relations between Honduras and Cuba broke following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the asylees were taken under the protection of Venezuela. About six months later, Carlos Montaner travelled to the United States, where he was reunited with his family. He began studying Hispanic American literature at the University of Miami. Upon graduating, he started teaching literature at the University of Puerto Rico. He successfully applied for a PhD scholarship in Madrid. In Spain he started a regular column and increasingly focused on writing. He published several books, and after the fall of the Franco regime in 1975, he joined the liberal movement and founded the Cuban Liberal Party. When he understood that change in Cuba was not yet possible, he returned to an intellectual life: he was a correspondent for several prominent newspapers around the world; he wrote columns, commented on Latin American affairs and published books. He currently resides in the United States and works at CNN in Spanish. He has a son and a daughter.

referencia:
www.pametnaroda.cz
cubansinflorida.us
www.amazon.com
www.memoryofnations.eu

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